Artificial Neurons and How They Work

Artificial Neurons and How They Work 

Artificial Neurons and How They Work

Introduction and Purpose 

This report is intended to help the reader understand what Artificial Neural Networks are, how to use them, and where they are currently being used. Artificial Neural Networks are being touted as the wave of the future in computing. They are indeed self learning mechanisms which don't require the traditional skills of a programmer. But unfortunately, misconceptions have arisen. 

Writers have hyped that these neuron-inspired processors can do almost anything. These exaggerations have created disappointments for some potential users who have tried, and failed, to solve their problems with neural networks. These application builders have often come to the conclusion that neural nets are complicated and confusing. 

Unfortunately, that confusion has come from the industry itself. A n avalanche of articles have appeared touting a large assortment of different neural networks, all with unique claims and specific examples. Currently, only a few of these neuron-based structures, paradigms actually, are being used commercially. One particular structure, the feedforward, backpropagation network, is by far and away the most popular.

 Most of the other neural network structures represent models for "thinking" that are still being evolved in the laboratories. Yet, all of these networks are simply tools and as such the only real demand they make is that they require the network architect to learn how to use them. 

This report is intended to help that process by explaining these structures, right down to the rules on how to tweak the "nuts and bolts." Also this report discusses what types of applications are currently utilizing the different structures and how some structures 

lend themselves to specific solutions. In reading this report, a reader who wants a general understanding of neural networks should read sections 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8. These sections provide an understanding of neural networks (section 2), their history (section 3), how they are currently 

being applied (section 6), the tools to apply them plus the probable future of neural processing (section 7), and a summary of what it all means (section 8). A more serious reader is invited to delve into the inner working of neural networks (section 4) and the various ways neural networks can be structured (section 5).

 1- What are Artificial Neural Networks? 

Artificial Neural Networks are relatively crude electronic models based on the neural structure of the brain. The brain basically learns from experience. It is natural proof that some problems that are beyond the scope of current computers are indeed solvable by small energy efficient packages. This brain modeling also promises a less technical way to develop machine solutions. 

This new approach to computing also provides a more graceful degradation during system overload than its more traditional counterparts. These biologically inspired methods of computing are thought to be the next major advancement in the computing industry. 

Even simple animal brains are capable of functions that are currently impossible for computers. Computers do rote things well, like keeping ledgers or performing complex math. But computers have trouble recognizing even simple patterns much less generalizing those patterns of the past into actions of the future. 

Now, advances in biological research promise an initial understanding of the natural thinking mechanism. This research shows that brains store information as patterns. Some of these patterns are very complicated and allow us the ability to recognize individual faces from many different angles. This process of storing information as patterns, utilizing those patterns, and then solving problems encompasses a new field in computing. 

This field, as mentioned before, does not utilize traditional programming but involves the creation of massively parallel networks and the training of those networks to solve specific problems. This field also utilizes words very different from traditional computing, words like behave, react, self-organize, learn, generalize, and forget.

2- Analogy to the Brain 

The exact workings of the human brain are still a mystery. Yet, some aspects of this amazing processor are known. In particular, the most basic element of the human brain is a specific type of cell which, unlike the rest of the body, doesn't appear to regenerate. 

Because this type of cell is the only part of the body that isn't slowly replaced, it is assumed that these cells are what provides us with our abilities to remember, think, and apply previous experiences to our every action. These cells, all 100 billion of them, are known as neurons. 

Each of these neurons can connect with up to 200,000 other neurons, although 1,000 to 10,000 is typical. The power of the human mind comes from the sheer numbers of these basic components and the multiple connections between them. It also comes from genetic programming and learning.

The individual neurons are complicated. They have a myriad of parts, sub-systems, and control mechanisms. They convey information via a host of electrochemical pathways. There are over one hundred different classes of neurons, depending on the classification method used. 

Together these neurons and their connections form a process which is not binary, not stable, and not synchronous. In short, it is nothing like the currently available electronic computers, or even artificial neural networks. These artificial neural networks try to replicate only the most basic elements of this complicated, versatile, and powerful organism.

 They do it in a primitive way. But for the software engineer who is trying to solve problems, neural computing was never about replicating human brains. It is about machines and a new way to solve problems.

Artificial Neurons and How They Work 

The fundamental processing element of a neural network is a neuron. This building block of human awareness encompasses a few general capabilities. Basically, a biological neuron receives inputs from other sources, combines them in some way, performs a generally nonlinear operation on the result, and then outputs the final result. Figure 2.2.1 shows the relationship of these four parts.

 3-Another type of transfer function, 

the threshold or ramping function, could mirror the input within a given range and still act as a hard limiter outside that range. It is a linear function that has been clipped to minimum and maximum values, making it non-linear. Yet another option would be a sigmoid or S-shaped curve. That curve approaches a minimum and maximum value at the asymptotes. 

It is common for this curve to be called a sigmoid when it ranges between 0 and 1, and a hyperbolic tangent when it ranges between -1 and 1. Mathematically, the exciting feature of these curves is that both the function and its derivatives are continuous. 

This option works fairly well and is often the transfer function of choice. Other transfer functions are dedicated to specific network architectures and will be discussed later. Prior to applying the transfer function, uniformly distributed random noise may be added. 

The source and amount of this noise is determined by the learning mode of a given network paradigm. This noise is normally referred to as "temperature" of the artificial neurons. The name, temperature, is derived from the physical phenomenon that as people become too hot or cold their ability to think is affected. 

Electronically, this process is simulated by adding noise. Indeed, by adding different levels of noise to the summation result, more brain-like transfer functions are realized. To more closely mimic nature's characteristics, some experimenters are using a gaussian noise source. 

Gaussian noise is similar to uniformly distributed noise except that the distribution of random numbers within the temperature range is along a bell curve. The use of temperature is an ongoing research area and is not being applied to many engineering applications.

NASA just announced a network topology which uses what it calls a temperature coefficient in a new feed-forward, back-propagation learning function. But this temperature coefficient is a global term which is applied to the gain of the transfer function. 

It should not be confused with the more common term, temperature, which is simple noise being added to individual neurons. In contrast, the global temperature coefficient allows the transfer function to have a learning variable much like the synaptic input weights. 

This concept is claimed to create a network which has a significantly faster (by several order of magnitudes) learning rate and provides more accurate results than other feedforward, back-propagation networks.

 4- Component 4. Scaling and Limiting:

After the processing element's transfer function, the result can pass through additional processes which scale and limit. This scaling simply multiplies a scale factor times the transfer value, and then adds an offset. 

Limiting is the mechanism which insures that the scaled result does not exceed an upper or lower bound. This limiting is in addition to the hard limits that the original transfer function may have performed. 

This type of scaling and limiting is mainly used in topologies to test biological neuron models, such as James Anderson's brain-state-in-the-box.

 5- Component 5. Output Function (Competition):

Each processing element is allowed one output signal which it may output to hundreds of other neurons. This is just like the biological neuron, where there are many inputs and only one output action. Normally, the output is directly equivalent to the transfer function's result. 

Some network topologies, however, modify the transfer result to incorporate competition among neighboring processing elements. Neurons are allowed to compete with each other, inhibiting processing elements unless they have great strength. 

Competition can occur at one or both of two levels. First, competition determines which artificial neuron will be active, or provides an output. Second, competitive inputs help determine which processing element will participate in the learning or adaptation process.

 6- Component 6. Error Function and Back-Propagated Value:

In most learning networks the difference between the current output and the desired output is calculated. This raw error is then transformed by the error function to match a particular network architecture. The most basic architectures use this error directly, but some square the error while retaining its sign, some cube the error, other paradigms modify the raw error to fit their specific purposes. 

The artificial neuron's error is then typically propagated into the learning function of another processing element. This error term is sometimes called the current error. The current error is typically propagated backwards to a previous layer. Yet, this back-propagated value can be either the current error, the current

error scaled in some manner (often by the derivative of the transfer function), or some other desired output depending on the network type. Normally, this back-propagated value, after being scaled by the learning function, is multiplied against each of the incoming connection weights to modify them before the next learning cycle.

 7- Component 7. Learning Function:

The purpose of the learning function is to modify the variable connection weights on the inputs of each processing element according to some neural based algorithm. This process of changing the weights of the input connections to achieve some desired result can also be called the adaption function, as well as the learning mode. 

There are two types of learning: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning requires a teacher. The teacher may be a training set of data or an observer who grades the performance of the network results. 

Either way, having a teacher is learning by reinforcement. When there is no external teacher, the system must organize itself by some internal criteria designed into the network. This is learning by doing.

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